Thinking about keto? Or some other plan du jour? They all end up in the same place: the fad diet book box at your grocery store where last year’s books are sold for 99¢.
The Ketogenic Diet
Here’s an actual conversation I overheard in our company break room:
You have got to try this stuff. It’s completely awesome. And scientific too! I spent like a week on the internet doing research. I’d never even heard of ketones before and now I’m drinkin’ this stuff. I’m losing weight like crazy and I feel like I’m eighteen! It’s not cheap but – c’mon – who cares about money when we’re talking about health?
A week later I notice an advertisement stuck at the entry to the perp’s cube. So now – after a ‘week of researching the internet’ and two weeks of downing ‘ketones’ – he is a nutritional expert selling the stuff. I sit close enough to him that I can hear his phone conversations and about three times a day I hear him explain that these are therapeutically pure ketones and they are only available from his company. I notice a plastic jug on his desk with ‘Proprietary’ tape wrapped around it. These guys are good.
I am completely irritated.
I’m irritated because, like any evangelist, he has all the answers. Except that he doesn’t. And he doesn’t even know it. Or care. The nuances of nutrition are simply too complex to funnel down to any superfood or micronutrient. It is silly, bad science that wastes people’s money, and is potentially harmful. He is selling something that doesn’t work over the long run.
I don’t know if it’s for him or for others but he also posts his daily diet for all to see:
- Breakfast – coffee with butter, ketone supplements
- Lunch – single portion of lean meat, leafy green vegetables, ketone supplements
- Dinner – healthy dinner of smaller portions, ketone supplement
- Lots of water all day
- Lots of exercise
Who wouldn’t lose weight on this diet? You could substitute ‘Betty Crocker Fudge Brownie’ for ‘ketone supplement’ and still lose weight. He’s eating fewer calories than he needs and extending the deficit with ‘lots of exercise’. He will likely begin eating even less as keto becomes a boring chore. Ask yourself: how many days over the next month do you want a chicken breast or a quarter pound of bacon for breakfast? And there is no such thing as being ‘partway Keto’. It’s either all or nothing. There comes a point, though, that all this concentration and money and boring food gives way to real life and the weight comes back. But by then there will be a new book on the shelves at Barnes and Noble about how fermented mango rind can not only help you lose weight and increase your IQ but actually emits pheromones making you absolutely irresistible to the opposite sex! And the cycle starts over.
There is another way to do this that is healthful, happy, less consuming, and proffers true benefits. It’s called eating food and doing a bit of exercise.
But first two things:
- Everyone has a right to an opinion. Just like my co-worker I’m always interested in ways to live a more healthy lifestyle. I just require evidence.
- All of the major health organizations have looked at controlled and peer-reviewed research and argue that there is little to no long-term gain to any of these fad diets. The big picture has been reaffirmed over and over again: a diet of whole foods that focuses on plants is our best bet for long-term health and a livable lifestyle. Michel Pollan‘s advice is “Eat food. Less of it. Mostly plants” still holds.
But ketones aren’t my interest here. How to sort out nutritional advice is. How do we learn to step back from the salesman and Internet ads and look to real science for health advice?
Here are some guidelines:
• Remember that science, and especially pseudo-science, is performed by human beings. Any time a human being is involved, a bias potentially persists. If said human is selling you something, they likely have a strong and selfish bias. Or they are selling an outright fake. This doesn’t mean that my co-worker and his ketone pals are wrong. Or that he is right. It means that you should be wary of anyone selling you exceptional results. (See more about humans doing research here.)
•Find a science-based nutritionist that you can trust. This can be much harder than it seems. For more academic references I like David Katz. I never miss the Nutrition Diva’s weekly podcast for down-to-earth advice about questions straight from the news. And I have just started listening to SciBabe, aka Yvette d’Entremont, who doesn’t provide nutritional advice as such but skewers bad and unsupported advice. Go here to read The Nutrition Diva’s take on the ketogenic diet.
•Run from any reference to superfood.
•Run as fast as you can from any reference to putting butter and coconut oil in your coffee.
•If you want Bulletproof then opt for La Roux and avoid Dave Asprey.
•Learn the buzzwords: natural, organic, toxic, superfood, ketones, accusations of working for ‘big pharma’ – all are fairly meaningless (botulism is organic and natural) and should trigger your bullshit detector.
•Speaking of detecting bullshit, here is Brainpicking’s take on Carl Sagan’s famous and useful Baloney Detection Kit – read here. Memorize it. It is more useful than the Ten Commandments.
•Learn to recognize and run from salesmen even if they wear white lab coats.
•If you like guys and gals in lab coats – I used to wear one – then look for consensus. When a survey of 10,000 registered dietitians says X then you can feel pretty confident about it. When Dr. No, a Dr. of Chiropractic in Duluth, discovers a MIRACLE CURE for low IQ while on vacation in Tahiti, well, be a little more suspicious.
•Read up on food, diet science, and diet hucksterism. I review Matt Fitzgerald’s Diet Cults here. Pollan’s Food Rules is a good reference. Anything from the American Medical Association, the American Cancer Society or the American Diabetes Association is going to be decent. Boring maybe. But a good start.
•Not every ailment requires a superfood. There is such a thing as celiac disease. It’s a medical condition that afflicts a small percentage of the population. But to castigate wheat as a toxin? The grain that provides about 20% of the world’s caloric intake? It’s silly. Use that book as a doorstop and read the next bullet.
•Let’s put rubber to the road here. Do you need more energy? Life just doesn’t charge you up like it used to? You hop out of the shower and notice that growing ring around your belly? Forget ketones. Forget GMO’s or gluten-free cupcakes. Start exercising. Starting eating what you know is healthy. Turn off the TV and go visit your grandma and eat one of her lemon bars. The Centers for Disease Control lists over ten health concerns directly related to being overweight. Some researchers estimate that fully 80% of health problems would dissipate with weight loss. So forget your acai juice at five bucks a quart. Exercise. Eat less. Enjoy yourself.
Have you found good advice for healthy living and good eating? Please write below.
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Another good primer.